India was the fourth largest motor vehicle/car manufacturer in the world in 2016¹. Indian auto manufacturers produced a record 25.3 milion motor vehicles in 2016-17 (Apr-Mar), incl. 3.79 million passenger vehicles. India is the largest manufacturer of three-wheelers (0.78 m units) and fourth largest in commercial vehicle (0.81 m units) manufacturing. India is the largest manufacturer of two-wheelers (19.9 m units) and tractors (sales ca 0.58 m units or around 1/3 of global output) in 2016-17. Construction vehicle production was approx. 59 000 in 2014. 2.03 million passengers cars were sold in India in 2015 (total car production amounted to 3.68 m units in 2016). The total turnover of the auto industry amounted to ca USD 145 billion in 2015-16 and the total installed capacity was ca 32 m units at the end of 2014-15. Over 13 million people work directly or indirectly in the auto industry.
Indian passenger vehicle exports amounted to 0.76 m units in 2015-17, while 2.34 m two-wheelers (mainly motorcycles), 0.11 m commercial vehicles and 0.27 m three wheelers were shipped overseas in the same year. Over 43 000 medium and heavy duty trucks were exported from India in 2016-17 incl. makes such as Daimler, Mitsubishi Fuso, Tata Motors and Ashok Leyland.
Domestic motor vehicle sales in 2016-17 included 3.05 m passenger vehicles, 0.71 m commercial vehicles, 0.51 m three wheelers and 17.59 two-wheelers.
The total turnover of the Indian automotive component industry stood at USD 43.5 billion in 2016-17. Auto ancillary exports fetched USD 10.9 bn in the same year while the total turnover of India's vehicle tyre industry amounted to an estimated ₹ 450 billion in 2013-14. The total number of registered motor vehicles reached approx. 210 million in March 2015.
Future new entrants into the Indian auto market include MG Motor, owned by the Chinese auto manufacturer SAIC and the French Groupe PSA, the latter making a re-entrant for the first time since the production of the Peugeot 309 model by Premier Automobiles (PAL) in the 1990s.
South Korea's Kia Motors, another new entrant in the Indian auto market, is investing USD 1.1 bn in a new auto plant (capacity 300 000 units pa) located in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh. The plant is expected to start rolling out cars in 2019. Volvo Cars commenced the assembly of SUVs in India in Oct '17 while GM is departing the Indian auto market although it will continue to export cars from its India plant.
¹ Source: OICA (The International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers 2016 Statistics)
The Government of India has announced an ambitious target of all-electric vehicle sales by 2030. Electric vehicle sales are still at a very nascent stage in India but the gradual dependence on the fossil fuel combustion engine is bound to decrease. A solid framework and incentive package needs to be in place to woo present and new manufacturers to invest in sub ₹ 1 million hybrid/electric car production where more larger volumes can be expected.
|Two-Wheelers||Cars, Jeeps and Taxis||Buses||Goods Vehicles||Misc (incl. tractors and three-wheelers|
Above video clips: Hyderabad's total motor vehicle population amounted to almost 5 million (inc. 850 000 cars) in 2016. Road congestion and air/noise pollution are some of the more serious effects. Hyderabad also lacks an efficient, integrated public transport. The first phase of the metro rail system was completed in Dec '17 and once fully commissioned, should provide a better and more environment friendly means of mass urban transit.
|City||Cars||All Motor Vehicles|
|Delhi||2 172||7 350|
|Hyderabad (2016)||850||ca 5 000|
|Audi India||7 742 (2016)|
|BMW India||7 861 (2016, incl. Minis)|
|Fiat-Chrysler India||5 665||135||5 800|
|Ford India||91 405||158 469||249 874|
|GM India (sales ending in 2017)||25 823||37 082|
|Honda Cars India||157 313|
|Hyundai Motor India||509 707||167 120||676 827|
|Isuzu Motors India||~ 3 000|
|Jaguar Land Rover||2 942 (Jan-Sep '17)|
|Mahindra & Mahindra||236 130||37 241 (incl. all motor vehicles)||506 625|
|Maruti Suzuki India||1 444 541||124 062||1 568 603|
|Mercedes-Benz India||13 231 (2016)|
|Nissan India||57 315||111 612||151 001|
|Renault India||135 123|
|Škoda Auto India||13 712|
|Tata Motors||153 151|
|Toyota Kirloskar Motor||142 500|
|Volkswagen India||60 500 (2016)||84 500 (2016)||145 145 (2016)|
|Volvo||1 584 (2016)|
|2007-08: Indicates April 2007-March 2008, FY09=Apr'08-Mar'09|
06-07: Indicates April 2006-March 2007
* Incl. of exports
** Apr-Dec 2006
|Aston Martin||ca 30 a year (2013)|
|Audi A4||-||-||102||1,050 (All Audi models)||1,658 (All Audi models)||
3,003 ( all models)
5,511 (All models)
|Audi A6||105 (all Audi models-'05)||300 (all Audi models)||349 (all Audi models)||111 (Jan-Apr)||396|
|Audi A8||-||-||172||1,050 (all Audi models)|
|Audi RS 5|
|Audi TT||5 (2005)||na|
|Bentley||20||28||ca 300 since 2003|
|BMW 3 Series||-||-||946||1,075 (FY09)||1,155||
|BMW 5 Series||-||-||822||1,352 (FY09)||1,590||
|BMW 6 series, X3 and X5||ca 40 (X5)||257 (all models)||83||4 (6 series, Mar)|
|BMW 7 Series||-||-||251||279 (FY09)|
|BMW X3, X5 and X6||
X3 930 (2012)
|BMW Z4 Roadster||
|Chevrolet Aveo||-||-||5,624||1,174 (Jan)||746 (Feb)||
|Chevrolet Aveo U-VA||-||-||11,523||
|Chevrolet Captiva||-||-||607||2,134 (FY09)||201 (Feb)||
|Chevrolet Forester (discontd.)||260 (2003-2005)||-||-||-||-||
|Chevrolet Optra Magnum||9 191||na||6,058 (inc. SR-V model)||1287 (Jan-Mar)||89 (Feb)||
|Chevrolet Spark||-||-||22,060||7,265 (Jan-Mar)||2,940 (Feb)||
|Chevrolet Tavera||18 622 (2005)||na||20,671||4,892 (Jan-Mar)||945 (Feb)||
|Fiat Grande Punto||-||-||-||-||
8,401 (all models in Apr-Jul)
~ 12,000 (Jan-Nov)
|Fiat Palio Stile||791 (05-06)||1,614 (06-07)||3,303|
|Fiat Petra/Adventure (discontd.)||454 (05-06)||584 (06-07)|
|Fiat 500||-||-||-||ca 30 till Sept||
ca 65 till Jun '10
|Ford Endeavour||1 818 (05-06)||na||2,916||2,780 (FY09)||184 (Oct)||
51,420 (all models Jan-May)
|Ford Fiesta||ca 3 500||na||22,855|
58,000 (till Nov)
|Ford Fusion (discontd.)||329²||na||2,678|
|Ford Ikon (discontd.)||24 536||na||4,797|
|Ford Mondeo (discontd.)||25² (05-06)||0|
|Hindustan Ambassador||12 740||na||8,487|
|Honda Accord||3 324 (05-06)||2,728 (06-07)||2,133||4,108 (FY09)||948 (Jan-Apr)||
|Honda City||37 545 (2005-06)||40,464 (06-07)||40,536 (incl. Marina STW)||18,482 (Jan-Apr)||
|Honda Civic||na||16,262 (06-07)||16,723||2,386 (Jan-Apr)||
|Honda CR-V||1 858 (05-06)||1,873 (06-07)||3,425||501 (Jan-Mar)||
|Hyundai Accent||24 383||na||8,274|
|Hyundai Elantra (discontd.)||2 331 (2005)||1,683 (06-07)||10 (Mar)|
|Hyundai Getz Prime||5 483||na||16,787||9,442 (FY09)|
|Hyundai i10||-||-||14,451 (2007)||106,110 (FY09)||24,990 (till Mar 12)|
|Hyundai i20||-||-||-||4,991 (FY09)||4,940 (Oct)|
|Hyundai Santa Fe|
|Hyundai Santro Xing||103 301²||163,838 (06-07)||121,163||91,466 (FY09)|
|Hyundai Sonata||806 (2005)||506||577||486 (FY09)||232 (Jan-Apr)||
|Hyundai Terracan (discontd.)||318³||-|
|Hyundai Tucson||884 (March-Nov 05)||533 (incl. Terracan)||188||50 (FY09)||13 (Jan-Apr)|
|Hyundai Verna||na||na||24,370||2,132 (Feb)||
242 (incl. Land Rover)
891 (Apr-Mar '11) incl. Land Rovers
2289 (Apr-Mar'12) incl. Land Rovers
ca 17 (2012)
|Land Rover||ca 30||na||~90 (2008)||242 (incl. Jaguar)||
|Mahindra Bolero||-||-||51,009||55,924 (FY09)|
|Mahindra Max||-||-||-||3,000 (Apr08-Feb09)|
|Mahindra Scorpio||31,661 (05-06)||38,015 (06-07)||41,443||27,000 (Apr08-Feb09)||3,200 (Mar)||
ca 44,000 ('10-'11)
|Mahindra Xylo||-||-||-||7,201 (FY09)||~10,500 (Jan-Apr)|
|Maruti 800||116 262²||79,245 (06-07)||69,553||49,383 (FY09)||9,915 (Apr-Jul)|
|Maruti Alto||126 223²||200,000+ (Apr06-Feb07)||227,173||218,127 (FY09)||240,000|
|Maruti Baleno (discontd.)||6 521||na|
|Maruti DZire||-||-||5,658||61,952 (FY09)||
8,995 incl. SX4 (Jan)
|Maruti Esteem (discontd.)||18 379||na||12,485|
|Maruti Grand Vitara||na||na||795||270 (FY09)|
|Maruti Gypsy||na||na||3,132||7,219 (FY09)|
103 (Mar '11)
|Maruti Omni||60 377²||na||88,273|
|Maruti Swift||34 463 (May-Nov 05)||na||88,745||110,071 (FY09)|
|Maruti SX4||-||-||31,192||1,953 (Feb)|
|Maruti Versa||4 291³||na||1,456||1,440 (FY09)|
|Maruti Wagon R||79 712²||na||132,727||134,768 (FY09)||140,000||
163,000 (Apr-Mar '11)
|Maruti Estilo||65 345²||na||50,635 (Zen and Estilo)||32,694 (FY09)|
5,109 (All models, Jan-Nov)
6,698 (all models Jan-Nov)
|Mercedes E-Class||825 (05)||922||1,048||1,167||1,048||
|Mercedes S-Class||144 (2005)||248||518||561||467||
|Mercedes CLS/SLK/SL/CLK/M||na||118||141 (incl. 80 M-class)||125 (models other than C,E and S class)||
6 CBU imports(Jan)
|Maybach||3 ('04 and '05)||na||na|
|Mitsubishi Lancer/Cedia||2 509||na||2,582||1,570 (FY09)|
|Mitsubishi Outlander||-||-||-||278 (FY09)|
|Mitsubishi Pajero/Montero||na||na||1,676||1,814 (FY09)|
|Nissan Teana||-||-||347||58 (FY09)||207 (FY10)||
|Nissan X-Trail||253 (2005)||250||173||100 (FY09)||
|Opel Corsa (discontd)||8 369||na||-||-||-||
|Porsche (various models)||ca 100 (2005)||160||168||168|
|Mahindra Verito (Renault Logan)||-||-||25,884||13,419 (FY09)||2,520 (Feb-Apr)||
|Rolls-Royce||5 (2005)||7 (2006)||12 (2007)||14 (2008)||<10 (2009)||
ca 250 till date (end 2013)
5,510 (Jan-Mar) all Škoda models
|Škoda Octavia/Laura||9 559 (05-06)||11,433||10,944||7,459 (FY09)||
|Škoda Superb||na||769||586||694 (FY09)||541 (Apr-Jun)||
|Tata Indica||111 574 (05-06)||144,690 (06-07)||135,642||111,257 (FY09)||91,295 (Apr-Jan '10)||
|Tata Indigo/Indigo XL/Indigo CS||39 377 (05-06)||34,310 (06-07)||31,416||49,190 (FY09)||41,724 (Apr-Jan '10)||
|Tata Marina||2 050||na|
21,535 (Jul-Jan '10)
|Tata Safari||4 692 (05-06)||15,816 (06-07)||19,078||25,630 (Sumo+Safari: Apr-Jan '10)||
3,538 (Safari/Sumo Jan)
|Tata Sumo / Sumo Victa||33 213 (05-06)||32,077 (06-07)||28,622|
|Tata Sumo Grande/MKII|
|Tata Xenon XT||-||-||-||161 (FY09)|
|Toyota Camry||794 (2005)||1,001 (06-07)||988||182 (Apr-Jun)||44 (Apr-Jun)||
|Toyota Corolla Altis||8 974 (2005)||na||6,204||9,172||
|Toyota Etios Liva||
|Toyota Innova||32 000 (2005)||na||48,069||42,740||
|Toyota Land Cruiser 200|
|Toyota Land Cruiser Prado||162 (2005)||na||141||109 (FY09)|
|Toyota Qualis (discontd.)||31 759²||na|
|VW New Beetle||
ca 240 till Jun '10
|VW Jetta||-||-||1,566 (all VW models)||1,957 (Jan-Aug: all VW models)||
27,946 (Vento and Polo)
58 (till Jun '11)
|Volvo V40 Cross Country|
|Volvo S80||-||-||ca 100 (all Volvo)||ca 90 ( all Volvo models)||
320 (all models)
Audi sells the A3, A4, A6, A8 L, Q3, Q5, Q7, S4, S5, RS 6 Coupe, RS 7 Sportback, TT Coupe, and R8 range of models. Audi competes in a niche market along with BMW and Mercedes cars and sold 7 742 in 2016 (11 192 units in 2015 and ca 60 000 cars since the company began operations in India). Audi assembles the A4, A6, Q3, Q5 and Q7 models at ŠkodaAuto's plant located at Aurangabad, Maharashtra while the other models are imported from Ingolstadt, Germany. Audi cars are available through over 60 dealers across India.
BMW has an assembly plant with an annual capacity of 14 000 units in Chenglepet located near Chennai that rolled out its 57 000th BMW car in Mar '17 after 10 years of production. The plant assembles BMW 1 Series, 3 Series, 3 Gran Turismo Series, new 5 Series, 7 Series, X1, X3 and X5 models. The present local content in the assembled cars is over 50 per cent. BMW imports a few models too incl. the BMW X6, BMW X6 M, 6 Series Gran Coupé, M6 Gran Coupé, Z4 Roadster and i8 hybrid sports car. BMW sells its cars through a network of 40 dealers. BMW sold 7 500 BMW's and 361 Minis in 2016.
Fiat has had a long presence in India. Prior to FCA India, Fiat had a technical collaboration with Premier Automobiles, for the manufacture of the popular Padmini model, a small sedan based on the third generation Fiat 1100D dated from the early sixties. Fiat India's other former cars included the Uno, Siena and Palio. Fiat's sales in India have in recent years failed to make any significant dent in the Indian auto market with total car sales amounting to 6 584 units in 2016. FCA launched the Jeep Compass SUV in July '17. The Compass is manufactured at FCA's Rangangaon plant. The new Tata Nexon SUV is also manufactured in the same plant along with the presently manufactured Tata Bolt, Tata Zest, Fiat Punto and Fiat Linea models.
Ford India sold 249 874 cars in 2016-17 of which 158 469 were exported and 91 405 units sold in India. Car export destinations include countries such as South Africa, the Middle East region and a few European countries. Ford operates two auto plants in India - Chennai (Tamil Nadu) and Sanand (Gujarat). The latter facility has manufactured 100 000 cars till Sep '16. The two plants have an annual capacity to manufacture upto 480 000 cars and 610 000 engines.
HCIL manufactures the Jazz, Brio, City, Civic, CR-V and Accord models. HCIL's two auto plants are located in Surajpur, Greater NOIDA, U.P and Tapukara (Bhiwadi), Rajasthan with a capacity to manufacture 100,000 cars per annum. Honda India's domestic sales amounted to 156 107 cars in 2016. Honda began exporting Brio cars to South Africa/SADC countries in Oct '12 and exported a total of 5740 cars in 2015/16.
Hyundai Motor India's two adjacent car plants at Irungattukotai near Chennai have a combined capacity of 600,000 cars per annum, the parent company's largest auto manufacturing facilities outside of South Korea. Domestic auto sales amounted to 500 537 units while exports fell slightly to 161 517 units in 2016. HMIL reached the 5 m mark for cars (7 m milestone was reached in Nov '16 for both overseas and domestic bound cars) sold within India in Nov '17.
Hyundai is launching its mid-sized Ioniq hybrid hatchback at the 2018 Auto Expo and could also be introducing the new 2017 i30 hatchback.
ICML, a unit of the Sonalika Group, manufactures the Extreme MPV model.
Isuzu Motors India manufactures a range of pickup and a SUV model from its plant at Sri City, Andhra Pradesh where manufacturing started in 2016. The plant has a capacity to manufacture upto 50 000 vehicles per annum. Isuzu sold around 3000 vehicles in 2016/17.
M & M sold 506 625 motor vehicles (incl. 37 241 exported units) in 2016-17. Mahindra is reportedly launching a new MPV model (codenamed U321) in Q1/18.
Mahindra Electric produces three models of electric vehicles, the Mahindra e2oPlus, a 4-door compact, eVerito sedan, eSupro van and an electric auto rickshaw, the e-Alfa Mini. The present monthly capacity of 400 units will gradually be increased upto 5 000 units till 2019 although just 700 electric vehicles were sold during Apr-Oct '17.
MSIL began manufacturing Suzuki Alto model cars in Dec 1983 in Gurgaon after which it quickly overtook both Hindustan Motors and Premier Auto to become India's largest car manufacturer as early as the mid-eighties. The company's net sales amounted to ₹ 669 billion (2016-17) while total auto sales grew to 1.57 million units (incl. 124 000 cars exported) in the same year. Suzuki Motor Corporation of Japan has a 56.2 % stake in MSIL. MSIL's total auto production exceeded 15 million in May 2015 and car exports reached the 1.5 m mark in Sep '16.
MSIL currently operates four assembly plants including an auto/transmission/engine plant in Manesar (Haryana) through a joint venture (Maruti Suzuki Automobiles India) with Suzuki Motor Corp. MSIL has a total auto manufacturing capacity of 1.55 million units per annum.
Mercedes-Benz India's sales in 2016 amounted 13 231, a slight drop from the 13 252 cars sold in 2015. Total sales since 1995, starting with the assembly of the E-class W 124 model, reached 50 000 in Jan '14. Total sales of E-series cars since 1995 reached 34 000 units in Feb '17. Mercedes-Benz sells the A, B, C, E, S, CLA, CLS, GLA, GLC, GLE and GLS models in addition to the luxurious Maybach sedan and AMG models.
The Mercedes-Benz plant located on a 100 acre site in Chakan, Maharashtra has a capacity to produce 20 000 cars. Mercedes-Benz has 92 showrooms across India.
Mitsubishi Motors manufactures the Pajero Sport SUV and its variants - the Pajero Sport Dual Tone-AT and the Pajero Sport Select Plus-AT. Other models include the Montero SUV. The Outlander crossover will be launched in May '18. Mitsubishi's auto plant is located in Thiruvallur near Chennai.
Nissan sells a range of eight cars (some branded as Datsun) in the Indian market through a 95 dealer network. Nissan's production in India includes the Micra, Sunny and Terrano model at the Renault Nissan plant (capacity: 480 000 units pa) located near Chennai. Nissan Motor India sold 151 001 cars in 2015/16 of which export accounted for 111 612 units and domestic sales at a lower volume of 39 389 cars (57 315 in 2016/17). Total exports since Nissan began production in India has surpassed 700 000 units.
Premier produces a compact SUV called the RiO with total sales till date (Nov '11) amounting to ca 2000 units. Premier, the erstwhile manufacturer of the Premier Padmini small sedan made a comeback with the launch of the RiO mini SUV, based on the Chinese Zotye Nomad model. The RiO is reasonably priced at less than ₹ 500 000 and is powered by the Peugeot TUD5 1.5 l diesel engine. Premier also manufactures LCV's.
Škoda Auto India's product range includes a range of cars assembled at Škoda's Aurangabad plant, ŠkodaAuto's first auto assembly plant setup outside of Europe. The current capacity is 50 000 units per annum. Škoda sold 13 712 cars in 2016-17 and has made a rebound in 2017 with sales increasing to 15 700 units Jan thru Nov '17. Škoda Auto has established itself in the Indian auto market having produced around 230 000 cars (early 2017) since the end of 2001.
SMG is a fully owned subsidiary of the Japanese Suzuki Motor Corporation. Car production commenced in Feb 2017 at the plant located near Hansalpur, Gujarat. The plant has an annual capacity of 250 000 vehicles. Another plant is under construction for the production of engines and transmission units. Vehicles under production include the Baleno hatchback. Domestic production is supplied to Maruti Suzuki.
Tata Motors is India's largest (2016-17 net revenue - ₹ 448 bn) and is ranked as the fifth largest medium and heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer in the world. Tata Motors sold 542 561 units in 2016-17. Domestic car sales amounted to 153 151 units while utility and commercial vehicles sales added upto 325 211 units in 2016-17. Exports amounted to 64 199 vehicles in the same year.
Tata's low-cost (approx. 2 500 USD) people's car, the 4-door Nano, was unveiled at the AutoExpo 2008 in Delhi and launched on Mar 23 '09. Tata invested approx. ₹ 17 bn developing and producing the Nano. A dedicated auto plant (with an annual production capacity of 250,000 units) for the Nano at Sanang, Gujarat was inaugurated in June 1010. Tata Marcopolo Motors Ltd. (TMML) manufactures fully built buses and coaches incl. low-floor intra-city models. Tata sold 14 917 buses in India in 2015-16. Tata Motors is developing a new SUV (codenamed Q501) which is expected to be launched by the end of 2018.
Tata GenX Nano Tata's low-cost minicar was launched on March 23rd '09. Deliveries began in July '09 with sales tallying to 77,000 till the end of 2010. The Nano is powered by a two-cylinder 35 PS 624cc rear-mounted engine with a top speed of 105 km/h. Although only 3.1 m long (a tad longer than the Morris Mini), the Nano is very tall at 1.6 m and boasts 20 % more space than the Maruti 800 (based on the early 80's Suzuki Alto). Three variants with different trim levels are available.
Toyota Kirloskar sold 142 50 cars in 2016-17. The Toyota factory site is located at Bidadi, Karnataka and consists of two auto plants with a total capacity of 310 000 units. New models planned to be launched in 2018 include the Toyota Vios sedan.
Volkswagen operates an 200 000 car annual capacity plant in Chakan near Pune (Maharashtra) which churned out 145 145 cars in 2016 out of which 60 500 were sold in India. The plant rolled out its 400 000th manufactured car in July '14.
Volvo has dealerships located in Mumbai, Delhi, Gurugram, Bengaluru, Ahmedabad, Coimbatore, Jaipur, Chandigarh, Ludhiana, Lucknow, Pune, Kochi, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Surat, Vijayawada, Vizag and Chennai. Car models on sale include the V40 hatchback, V40 Cross Country, V90 Cross Country, S60 sedan, XC60, S60 Cross Country and S90 sedans, XC90 and XC90 Excellence. The new XC40 compact SUV is expected to be launched in India by mid-2018.
These car models are priced at approx. ₹ 4 million and ₹ 5 million respectively and are imported from Volvo's Gothenburg factory in Sweden. Volvo sold 1 584 cars in 2016, an increase over the 1 423 cars sold in 2015. Volvo Cars commenced assembly of the XC90 SUV in Oct 2017 in a plant located in Hoskote near Bengaluru. The XC60 SUV is also assembled in Volvo's India plant.
General Motors is phasing out auto sales in the Indian market although export production will continue at its Talegaon (Maharashtra) plant. SAIC is reported to be proceeding in a buyout of GM's former Halol (Gujarat) facility. GM sold 25 823 cars in 2016-17. GM produced around ½ million cars for the Indian market ever since launching its first offering, the Opel Astra sedan in 1996.
HM was a Kolkata based car manufacturer with manufacturing facilities at Uttarpara (West Bengal), Pithampur (Madhya Pradesh), Thiruvallur (Tamil Nadu) and Hosur (Karnataka). HM sold 9,211 motor vehicles in 2008-09 including Mitsubishi models. Ambassador (petrol, diesel and CNG) - Production of the Ambassador which was based on an early 50's Austin Oxford model ended in 2014. Over 800 000 Ambassadors were produced.
Image above: A Hindustan Contessa in Hyderabad. Contessas are now a rare sight on Indian roads. The Contessa's body is based on the early-seventies Vauxhall Victor (Opel Rekord). Production of the Contessa spanned two decades from 1982. Production ended in 2002. The Contessa was one of the few more luxurious cars built in India (alongwith the Standard Motors' Standard 2000 model) prior to economic reforms in the early nineties.
The Force Motors (erstwhile Bajaj Tempo) product portfolio includes a range of LCV's, utility and commercial vehicles. Force Motors has also planned a joint venture with Neoman for the manufacture of chassis and complete buses.
Goldstone Infratech manufactures electric buses in collaboration with Chinese BYD Auto Industry, the latter being the largest electric vehicle manufacturer in the world. A few of the eBuzz K7 buses are operating in eg Mumbai (BEST Undertaking) and for Himachal Pradesh Transport Road Transport Corp (HTRC). The electric buses come with a range 200 kms when fully charged. Charging takes less than 4 hrs.